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シンポジウム

Evolution: Genomes, Cell Types and Shapes

Organizers Detlev Arendt (EMBL Heidelberg)
Shigeru Kuratani (RIKEN CDB)
Mitsuyasu Hasebe (NIBB)
Naoto Ueno (NIBB)
Evolution: Genomes, Cell Types and Shapes
Venue Okazaki Conference Center, Okazaki, Japan
Date Nov. 21-23, 2008
Link Meeting Website (http://www.nibb.ac.jp/emblmeeting/)

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 生物進化は遺伝子変異を基盤としたボディプランの改変によって起こるが、遺伝子変異というミクロな現象と、形態進化というマクロな現象をつなぐ現象のメゾスコピックな視点での研究は立ち後れている。例えば、初期発生、器官形成、再生過程をそのような視点で理解するためには、細胞分化、細胞形態、細胞運動など個々の細胞における変化や細胞集団としての振る舞いを観察し、それらが大きな形態変化へのプロセスにどのように内挿されているのかを明らかにする必要がある。この合同会議では、酵母、高等植物から哺乳動物まで、単細胞生物、多細胞生物を問わず、生物個体の形態および機能進化の基盤をなす遺伝子変異が、実際どのような中間的なプロセスを経て大きな進化に結びついたのかを考察し、その階層を超えた論理を探ることにあった。
 本会議ではこの目的に沿って、この分野をリードするEMBLを中心とした欧米の研究者、基礎生物学研究所を含めた国内研究者が一堂に会し、植物、陸生および水生動物など多様な生物種を対象にした進化学的研究を、ゲノムの進化、遺伝子制御ネットワークの進化、エピジェネティック制御の進化、細胞間相互作用の進化、ボディプランの進化、脳機能など高次機能の進化、幹細胞や再生現象の進化という多段階での進化イベントについて講演を行い、その後それらをつなぐ階層間の連続性について考察した。進化という実験生物学ではアプローチしにくい現象について、階層を超えた議論を行ったことは進化の原動力を探る上で大変有意義であった。(上野直人)
 
 This meeting was planned by three organizers, Detlev Arendt (EMBL), Mitsuyasu Hasebe (NIBB) and Shigeru Kurtani (RIKEN, CDB), to address current problems in evolutionary biology at different hierarchical levels of animal and plant life. The levels discussed included genomes, gene regulatory networks at the micro-level and organelles, cell types, organs, and morphology of species at the macro-level. Among the many meetings in evolutionary biology meetings, in which typically only a few limited topics of similar levels are discussed, this meeting was unique in that it overviewed the evolution of organismal life and brought the interconnectivity of the logic underlying different layers of evolutional events into focus. The life and evolutionary strategies of a variety of organisms, from single-celled organisms such as bacteria and yeast to higher plants and vertebrate including mammals, were presented and discussed not only with mechanistic insights but also from the aspect of their impact on the history of organismal life.

 Four graduate students from EMBL were invited to contribute to the meeting and presented their work. They also had chances to meet with graduate students of NIBB and exchange thoughts on their scientific life at each institution.

Program
Nov. 21, Friday
13:00-14:00 Registration
14:00-14:10 Opening Remarks   Kiyotaka Okada (Director-General, NIBB)
Evolution of Animal Body Plans
Chair : Detlev Arendt
14:10-14:40 Detlev Arendt (EMBL Heidelberg)
"The Evolutionary Origin of the Bilaterian CNS: A Cell Type Perspective"
14:40-15:10 Ulrich Technau (Univ. Vienna)
"The Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis as a Model System for the Study of the Evolutionary Origin of Mesoderm and Bilaterality"
15:10-15:40 Shigeru Kuratani (RIKEN, CDB)
"What Does It Take to Be a Turtle?"
15:40-16:00 Coffee break
16:00-16:30 Daniel M. Chourrout (Univ. Bergen)
"Evolution of Lineage-Specific Functions in the Tunicate Oikopleura dioica"
16:30-16:45 “Evolutionary Roots of Blastoporal Expression and ‘Organizer’ Activity of the Vertebrate Gastrula Organizer Gene lhx1 and Its Ancient Paraloglhx3
Yuuri Yasuoka (Univ. Tokyo)  *Short talk from posters
16:45-17:00 “The Evolution of Mushroom Body and Telencephalic Cell Types, Studied by Single Cell Expression Profiling of Platynereis dumeriliiLarvae”
Raju Tomer (EMBL Heidelberg)  *Short talk from posters
17:30-19:30 Poster Session    List of Poster titles
Nov. 22, Saturday
Evolution of Animal Body Plans
Chair : Detlev Arendt
8:40-9:10 Christopher J. Lowe (Univ. Chicago)
"The Role of Secreted Ligands in Nervous System Patterning during Deuterostome Evolution"
Evolution of Genomes
Chair : Lars Steinmetz
09:10-9:40 Lars Steinmetz (EMBL Heidelberg)
"Recombination Patterns Across the Yeast Genome"
09:40-10:10 Peer Bork (EMBL Heidelberg)
"Bridging Genotypes and Phenotypes by Data Integration"
10:10-10:40 Michael Knop (EMBL Heidelberg)
"Evolution of Mutational Robustness in the Yeast Genome: A Link to Essential Genes and Meiotic Recombination Hot Spots?"
10:40-10:55 “Multiple Genome Alignment for Identifying the Genomic Core among Moderately Related Microbial Genomes”
Ikuo Uchiyama (NIBB)  *Short talk from posters
10:55-11:10 Coffee break
Evolution of Gene Regulatory Networks 
Chair : Eileen E. Furlong
11:10-11:40 Eileen E. Furlong (EMBL Heidelberg)
"Developmental Networks in cis: Can We Decipher the Code?"
11:40-12:10 Nori Satoh (Kyoto Univ.)
"The Origin and Evolution of Chordates"
12:10-13:05 Lunch
13:05-13:35 Francois Spitz (EMBL Heidelberg)
"The Role of Gene Regulatory Architecture in Vertebrate Development and Evolution"
13:35-13:50 “Eya and STAT Are Conserved Components of Myogenesis, but Differently Regulated, between Vertebrates and Drosophila
Ya-Hsin Liu (EMBL Heidelberg)  *Short talk from posters
Evolution of Plants
Chair : Jim Haseloff
13:50-14:20 Jim Haseloff (Univ. Cambridge)
"Morphogenetic Engineering of Plant Systems"
14:20-14:50 Hirokazu Tsukaya (Univ. Tokyo)
"Genetic Basis of Leaf Shape/Size Evolution"
14:50-15:20 John L. Bowman (Monash Univ.)
"Evolution of Body Plans in Land Plants"
15:20-15:50 Mitsuyasu Hasebe (NIBB)
"PcG Gene Manages Life Cycle by Regulating Pluripotent Stem Cell Character"
15:50-16:20 William E. Friedman (Univ. Colorado)
"An Evolutionary-Developmental Perspective on the Angiosperm Reproductive Syndrome"
16:20-16:35 “Evo-Devo of Unifacial Leaves in Monocots”
Takahiro Yamaguchi (NIBB)  *Short talk from posters
16:35-16:55 Coffee break
Evolution of Phylum-specific Traits
Chair : Michael Akam
16:55-17:25 Michael Akam (Univ. Cambridge)
"Early Embryonic Patterning and Segmentation in Onychophorans and Myriapods"
17:25-17:55 Mikiko Tanaka (Tokyo Inst. Tech.)
"Heterochronic Shift in Hox-Mediated Activation of Sonic hedgehogLeads to Morphological Changes during Vertebrate Fin Evolution"
17:55-18:25 Masataka Okabe (The Jikei Univ. School of Med.)
"Transition from Aquatic to Terrestrial Life and Evolution of the Vertebrate Pharynx"
18:25-18:55 Fumitoshi Ishino (Tokyo Med. & Dental Univ.)
"Evolution of Placentation in Eutherian Mammals Contributed by Exaptation of PEG10 and PEG11/RTL1 from Retrotransposons"
18:55-19:10 “On the Origin and Evolution of Vertebrate Olfactory Receptor Genes: Comparative Genome Analysis among 23 Chordate Species”
Yoshihito Niimura (Tokyo Med. & Dental Univ.)   *Short talk from posters
19:10-20:30 Mixer
Nov. 23, Sunday
Evolution of Vision & Brain
Chair : Claude Desplan
09:00-09:30 Claude Desplan (NY Univ.)
"Detection and Processing of Color Information in Drosophila"
09:30-10:00 Norihiro Okada (Tokyo Inst. Tech.)
"Multiple SINE Insertions Made Our Brain Mammalian?"
10:00-10:30 Tetsuo Yamamori (NIBB)
"Identification and Characterization of the Genes Specifically Expressed in the Primate Neocortical Areas"
10:30-10:45 “Development of the Nervous System in the Acorn Worm Balanoglossus simodensis
Norio Miyamoto (Univ. Tsukuba)  *Short talk from posters
10:45-11:05 Coffee break
Evolution of Regeneration
Chair : Kiyokazu Agata
11:05-11:35 Kiyokazu Agata (Kyoto Univ.)
"Evolution of the Complex Brain by Increasing Cellular Complexity: When was the Neural Stem Cell System First Established?"
11:35-12:05 Koji Tamura (Tohoku Univ.)
"A Variety of Limb Regeneration Abilities in Tetrapods"
12:05-12:35 Sumihare Noji (Univ. Tokushima)
"Regulation of the Leg Size and Shape through the Fat Signaling Pathway during Regeneration"
12:35-12:45 Closing Remarks   Detlev Arendt (EMBL Heidelberg)